Geographic and Governmental Profile of Uzbekistan

Background
Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Location
Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Asia
Area
total:
447,400 sq km
rank:
57
land:
425,400 sq km
water:
22,000 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries
total:
6,221 km
border countries:
Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims
none (doubly landlocked)
Climate
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point:
Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use
arable land:
10.51%
permanent crops:
0.76%
other:
88.73% (2005)
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Irrigated land
42,230 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
72.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
per capita:
2,194 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
NA
Environment - current issues
shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form:
Uzbekistan
local long form:
Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form:
Ozbekiston
former:
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital
name:
Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates:
41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference:
UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence
1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Constitution
adopted 8 December 1992; amended in 2002
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991)
head of government:
Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results:
Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%, other 3.2%
Legislative branch
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (Qonunchilik Palatasi) (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the new Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan)
elections:
last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19
all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Judicial branch
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly); Constitutional Court, Arbitration Court, Higher Economic Court
Political parties and leaders
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan; Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU; National Rebirth Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish); People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or NDP (formerly Communist Party)
Political pressure groups and leaders
there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan
International organization participation
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ilhomjon NEMATOV
chancery:
1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
[1] (202) 887-5300
FAX:
[1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general:
New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador George KROL
embassy:
3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[998] (71) 120-5450
FAX:
[998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
National symbol(s)
khumo (mythical bird)
National anthem
name:
"O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music:
Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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