Geographic and Governmental Profile of Tanzania

Background
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.
Location
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
947,300 sq km
rank:
31
land:
885,800 sq km
water:
61,500 sq km
includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparative
slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
total:
3,861 km
border countries:
Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline
1,424 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Climate
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Natural resources
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use
arable land:
4.23%
permanent crops:
1.16%
other:
94.61% (2005)
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Irrigated land
1,840 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
91 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)
per capita:
135 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism:
limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Environment - current issues
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
Country name
conventional long form:
United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form:
Tanzania
local long form:
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form:
Tanzania
former:
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Dar es Salaam
geographic coordinates:
6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference:
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital, and the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis; the Executive Branch with all ministries and diplomatic representation remains located in Dar es Salaam
Administrative divisions
26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Independence
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent on 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar on 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania on 29 October 1964
National holiday
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Mohammed Gharib BILAL (since 6 November 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government:
President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Mohammed Gharib BILAL (since 6 November 2010)
Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Ali Mohamed SHEIN elected to that office on 31 October 2010, sworn in 3 November 2010
cabinet:
Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections:
president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 61.2%, Willibrod SLAA 26.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 8.1%, other 4.4%
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (357 seats; 239 members elected by popular vote, 102 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms, up to 10 additional members appointed by the president, 1 seat reserved for the Attorney General); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives with jurisdiction exclusive to Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats; members elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 259, CHADEMA 48, CUF 34, NCCR-M 4, other 7, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 28, CUF 22
Judicial branch
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Political parties and leaders
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Willibrod SLAA]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi [Hashim RUNGWE]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Mutamwega MUGAHWYA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Fahma DOVUTWA]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF; Free Zanzibar; Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mwandaidi Sinare MAAJAR
chancery:
1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
[1] (202) 939-6125
FAX:
[1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alfonso E. LENHARDT
embassy:
686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address:
P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone:
[255] (22) 266-8001
FAX:
[255] (22) 266-8238, 266-8373
Flag description
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean
National symbol(s)
Uhuru (Freedom) torch
National anthem
name:
"Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music:
collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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