Geographic and Governmental Profile of Togo

Background
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community. In January 2012, Togo assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.
Location
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
56,785 sq km
rank:
126
land:
54,385 sq km
water:
2,400 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries
total:
1,647 km
border countries:
Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline
56 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
30 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Climate
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use
arable land:
44.2%
permanent crops:
2.11%
other:
53.69% (2005)
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Irrigated land
70 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
14.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita:
28 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Country name
conventional long form:
Togolese Republic
conventional short form:
Togo
local long form:
Republique Togolaise
local short form:
none
former:
French Togoland
Government type
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital
name:
Lome
geographic coordinates:
6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference:
UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Constitution
adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system
customary law system
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);
head of government:
Prime Minister Kwesi AHOOMEY-ZUNU (since 23 July 2012)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2012)
election results:
percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4
Judicial branch
Constitutional Court; High Court of Justice; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel; Court of Audits
Political parties and leaders
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders
NA
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kadangha Limbiya BARIKI
chancery:
2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 234-4212
FAX:
[1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS
embassy:
4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address:
B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20512-2300
telephone:
[228] 261-5470
FAX:
[228] 261-5501
Flag description
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem
name:
"Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music:
Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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