Geographic and Governmental Profile of Tajikistan

Background
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan experienced several security incidents in 2010, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and opposition militants in the Rasht Valley. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan is seeking WTO membership and joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002.
Location
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Asia
Area
total:
143,100 sq km
rank:
96
land:
141,510 sq km
water:
2,590 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries
total:
3,651 km
border countries:
Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point:
Qullai Ismoili Somoni (Pik Imeni Ismail Samani) 7,495 m
Natural resources
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use
arable land:
6.52%
permanent crops:
0.89%
other:
92.59% (2005)
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Irrigated land
7,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
99.7 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
11.96 cu km/yr (4%/5%/92%)
per capita:
1,837 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
earthquakes; floods
Environment - current issues
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form:
Tajikistan
local long form:
Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form:
Tojikiston
former:
Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Dushanbe
geographic coordinates:
38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference:
UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence
9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution
6 November 1994
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999); First Deputy Prime Minister Matlubkhon DAVLATOV (since 5 January 2012)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for multiple terms); election last held on 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Legislative branch
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
National Assembly - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015)
election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 71%, Islamic Revival Party 8.2%, CPT 7%, APT 5.1%, PER 5.1%, other 3.6%; seats by party - PDPT 55, Islamic Revival Party 2, CPT 2, APT 2, PER 2
Judicial branch
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court, Supreme Economic Court
Political parties and leaders
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NARZIEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
for the DPT, the Ministry of Justice named a new chairman, Masud SOBIROV, in 2006; Mr. ISKANDAROV's supporters do not recognize Mr. SOBIROV; for the SPT, the Ministry of Justice named a new chairman, Abduhalim GHAFAROV, in 2004; Mr. NARZIEV's supporters do not recognize Mr. GHAFAROV
Political pressure groups and leaders
splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party:
Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT)
unregistered political parties:
Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
International organization participation
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Nuriddin SHAMSOV
chancery:
1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
[1] (202) 223-6090
FAX:
[1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kenneth GROSS
embassy:
109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address:
7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone:
[992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX:
[992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag description
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
National symbol(s)
crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars
National anthem
name:
"Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music:
Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOV
adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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