Geographic and Governmental Profile of Sweden

Background
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.
Location
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
450,295 sq km
rank:
56
land:
410,335 sq km
water:
39,960 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries
total:
2,233 km
border countries:
Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline
3,218 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone:
agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point:
Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use
arable land:
5.93%
permanent crops:
0.01%
other:
94.06% (2005)
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Irrigated land
1,600 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
179 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
2.68 cu km/yr (37%/54%/9%)
per capita:
296 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
Country name
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form:
Sweden
local long form:
Konungariket Sverige
local short form:
Sverige
Government type
constitutional monarchy
Capital
name:
Stockholm
geographic coordinates:
59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday
Swedish Flag Day, 6 June (1916); National Day, 6 June (1983)
Constitution
1 January 1975
Legal system
civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government:
Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Jan BJORKLUND (since 5 October 2010)
cabinet:
Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections:
the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branch
unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 19 September 2010 (next to be held in September 2014)
election results:
percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Party 30.7%, Moderate Party 30.1%, Green Party 7.3%, Liberal People's Party 7.1%, Center Party 6.6%, Sweden Democrats 5.7%, Christian Democrats 5.6%, Left Party 5.6%, others 1.3%; seats by party - Social Democratic Party 112, Moderate Party 107, Green Party 25, Liberal People's Party 24, Center Party 23, Sweden Democrats 20, Christian Democrats 19, Left Party 19
Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen; Supreme Administrative Court note: the Supreme Court is the highest court of general jurisdiction and the Supreme Administrative Court is the highest administrative court
Political parties and leaders
Center Party (Centerpartiet) [Annie LOOF]; Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Goran HAGGLUND]; Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) [no formal leader, spokespersons are Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN]; Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) or LPP [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party (Moderaterna) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SDP [Stefan LOFVEN]; Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Children's Rights in Society; Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO; Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN]
other:
environmental groups; media
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jonas HAFSTROM
chancery:
The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
[1] (202) 467-2600
FAX:
[1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general:
New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mark BRZEZINSKI
embassy:
Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address:
American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone:
[46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX:
[46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
National symbol(s)
three crowns; lion
National anthem
name:
"Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music:
Richard DYBECK/traditional
in use since 1844; the anthem, also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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