Economy of Spain

Economy - overview
spain's mixed capitalist economy is the 13th largest in the world, and its per capita income roughly matches that of Germany and France. However, after almost 15 years of above average GDP growth, the Spanish economy began to slow in late 2007 and entered into a recession in the second quarter of 2008. GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and by another 0.1% in 2010, before turning positive in 2011, making Spain the last major economy to emerge from the global recession. The reversal in Spain''s economic growth reflected a significant decline in construction amid an oversupply of housing and falling consumer spending, while exports actually have begun to grow. Government efforts to boost the economy through stimulus spending, extended unemployment benefits, and loan guarantees did not prevent a sharp rise in the unemployment rate, which rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to over 20% in 2011. The government budget deficit worsened from 3.8% of GDP in 2008 to 9.2% of GDP in 2010, more than three times the euro-zone limit. Madrid cut the deficit to 8.5% of GDP in 2011, a larger deficit than the 6% target negotiated between Spain and the EU. Spain''s large budget deficit and poor economic growth prospects have made it vulnerable to financial contagion from other highly-indebted euro zone members despite the government''s efforts to cut spending, privatize industries, and boost competitiveness through labor market reforms. Spanish banks'' high exposure to the collapsed domestic construction and real estate market also poses a continued risk for the sector. The government oversaw a restructuring of the savings bank sector in 2010, and provided some $15 billion in capital to various institutions. Investors remain concerned that Madrid may need to bail out more troubled banks. The Bank of Spain, however, is seeking to boost confidence in the financial sector by pressuring banks to come clean about their losses and consolidate into stronger groups.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
$1.432 trillion (2011 est.)
$1.422 trillion (2009 est.)
data are in 2011 US dollars
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GDP (official exchange rate)
$1.494 trillion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate
0.7% (2011 est.)
-3.7% (2009 est.)
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GDP - per capita (PPP)
$31,000 (2011 est.)
$31,000 (2009 est.)
data are in 2011 US dollars
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GDP - composition by sector
agriculture:
3.2%
industry:
25.8%
services:
71% (2011 est.)
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Labor force
23.1 million (2011 est.)
rank:
28
Labor force - by occupation
agriculture:
4.2%
industry:
24%
services:
71.7% (2009 est.)
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Unemployment rate
21.7% (2011 est.)
20.1% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line
19.8% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10%:
2.6%
highest 10%:
26.6% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
32 (2005)
32.5 (1990)
Investment (gross fixed)
21.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
rank:
71
Budget
revenues:
$545.2 billion
expenditures:
$672.1 billion (2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues
36.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
rank:
61
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
-8.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
rank:
189
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Public debt
68.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
61.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
3.1% (2011 est.)
2% (2010 est.)
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Central bank discount rate
1.75% (31 December 2011)
1.75% (31 December 2010)
this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate
8.3% (31 December 2011 est.)
7.223% (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of narrow money
$778.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$811 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money
$2.488 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.388 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit
$3.683 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
$3.451 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
$1.031 trillion (31 December 2011)
$1.297 trillion (31 December 2009)
Agriculture - products
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate
-1.4% (2011 est.)
rank:
153
Electricity - production
275.1 billion kWh (2009 est.)
rank:
13
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Electricity - consumption
267.5 billion kWh (2008 est.)
rank:
14
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Electricity - exports
14.86 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports
8.104 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production
29,970 bbl/day (2010 est.)
rank:
70
Oil - consumption
1.441 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
rank:
17
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Oil - exports
240,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
rank:
48
Oil - imports
1.584 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
rank:
12
Oil - proved reserves
150 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
rank:
63
Natural gas - production
48 million cu m (2010 est.)
rank:
84
Natural gas - consumption
35.82 billion cu m (2010 est.)
rank:
26
Natural gas - exports
1.152 billion cu m (2010 est.)
rank:
37
Natural gas - imports
36.71 billion cu m (2010 est.)
rank:
11
Natural gas - proved reserves
2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
rank:
96
Current account balance
-$55.1 billion (2011 est.)
-$64.34 billion (2010 est.)
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Exports
$303.6 billion (2011 est.)
$253 billion (2010 est.)
Exports - commodities
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Exports - partners
France 18.2%, Germany 10.4%, Portugal 8.1%, Italy 8.1%, UK 6.5% (2011)
Imports
$363.1 billion (2011 est.)
$315.3 billion (2010 est.)
Imports - commodities
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Imports - partners
Germany 12.6%, France 11.5%, Italy 6.9%, China 6%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.3%, Portugal 4% (2011)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
$47.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$31.91 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
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Debt - external
$2.57 trillion (30 June 2011)
$2.166 trillion (30 June 2010)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
$641.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$621.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
$662.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$644.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates
0.7345 (2007 est.)
Fiscal year
calendar year
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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