Geographic and Governmental Profile of Singapore

Background
Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Location
Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates
1 22 N, 103 48 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Southeast Asia
Area
total:
697 sq km
rank:
192
land:
687 sq km
water:
10 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries
0 km
Coastline
193 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
3 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point:
Bukit Timah 166 m
Natural resources
fish, deepwater ports
Land use
arable land:
1.47%
permanent crops:
1.47%
other:
97.06% (2005)
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Irrigated land
NA
Total renewable water resources
0.6 cu km (1975)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.19 cu km/yr (45%/51%/4%)
per capita:
44 cu m/yr (1975)
Natural hazards
NA
Environment - current issues
industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Singapore
conventional short form:
Singapore
local long form:
Republic of Singapore
local short form:
Singapore
Government type
parliamentary republic
Capital
name:
Singapore
geographic coordinates:
1 17 N, 103 51 E
time difference:
UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
none
Independence
9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
National holiday
National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution
3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on pre-independence State of Singapore constitution)
Legal system
English common law
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 September 2011)
head of government:
Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Deputy Prime Minister THARMAN Shanmugaratnam (since 21 May 2011); Senior Minister HENG Chee How (since 21 May 2011)
cabinet:
appointed by president, responsible to parliament
elections:
president elected by popular vote for six-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president
election results:
Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president from a field of four candidates with 35.2% of the votes cast
Legislative branch
unicameral Parliament (87 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; up to three losing opposition candidates who came closest to winning seats may be appointed as Nominated Members of Parliament (NMP)
elections:
last held on 7 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2016)
election results:
percent of vote by party - PAP 60.1%, WP 12.8%, NSP 12.1%, others 15%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 6
Judicial branch
Supreme Court consists of High Court and Court of Appeals; Specialist Commercial Courts consist of Admiralty Court, Intellectual Property Court, and Abritation Court
(chief justice, judges of appeal, and judicial commissioners are appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister)
Political parties and leaders
National Solidarity Party or NSP [Hazel POA]; People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Reform Party [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong]; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia LIM Swee Lian]
SDA includes Singapore Justice Party or SJP, Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS, Singapore People's Party or SPP
Political pressure groups and leaders
none
International organization participation
ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIT, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI
chancery:
3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 537-3100
FAX:
[1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general:
San Francisco
consulate(s):
New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador David I. ADELMAN
embassy:
27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address:
FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone:
[65] 6476-9100
FAX:
[65] 6476-9340
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality
National symbol(s)
lion
National anthem
name:
"Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
lyrics/music:
ZUBIR Said
adopted 1965; the anthem, which was first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, is sung only in Malay
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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