Geographic and Governmental Profile of San Marino

The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates
43 46 N, 12 25 E
Continent / Subcontinent
61 sq km
61 sq km
0 sq km
Area - comparative
about one third times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries
39 km
border countries:
Italy 39 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
rugged mountains
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point:
Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources
building stone
Land use
arable land:
permanent crops:
83.33% (2005)
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Irrigated land
Natural hazards
Environment - current issues
air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution
Geography - note
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of San Marino
conventional short form:
San Marino
local long form:
Repubblica di San Marino
local short form:
San Marino
Government type
San Marino
geographic coordinates:
43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
3 September 301
National holiday
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system
civil law system with Italian civil law influences
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Maurizio RATTINI and Captain Regent Italo RIGHI (for the period 1 April-1 October 2012)
head of government:
Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)
Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Grand and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in March 2012 (next to be held in September 2012); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Grand and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)
election results:
Maurizio RATTINI and Italo RIGHI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branch
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)
election results:
percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2% (PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%, other 0.3%), Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8% (Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%, 0.3%); seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35 (PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2), Reforms and Freedom coalition 25 (Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2)
Judicial branch
Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders
Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Democrats of the Center or DdC [Giovanni LONFERNINI]; Freedom List (including NPS and We Sammarinesi) or NS [Gabriele GATTEI]; New Socialist Party or NPS [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PDS [Paride ANDREOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Carlo FRANCIOSI]; Union of Moderates (including National Alliance or ANS [Glauco SANSOVINI] and San Marino Populars or POP [Romeo MORRI and Angela VENTURINI]; United Left or SU [Alessandro ROSSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders
International organization participation
CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
Diplomatic representation from the US
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
National symbol(s)
three peaks each displaying a tower
National anthem
"Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
none/Federico CONSOLO
adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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