Geographic and Governmental Profile of Senegal

Background
The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition. His attempt to change the constitution in June 2011 prompted large public protests and his decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff election with Macky SALL.
Location
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates
14 00 N, 14 00 W
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
196,722 sq km
rank:
88
land:
192,530 sq km
water:
4,192 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries
total:
2,640 km
border countries:
The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
Coastline
531 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:
unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
Natural resources
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use
arable land:
12.51%
permanent crops:
0.24%
other:
87.25% (2005)
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Irrigated land
1,200 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
39.4 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
per capita:
190 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Senegal
conventional short form:
Senegal
local long form:
Republique du Senegal
local short form:
Senegal
former:
Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Dakar
geographic coordinates:
14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference:
UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
Constitution
adopted 7 January 2001; amended many times
Legal system
civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government:
Prime Minister Abdoul MBAYE (since 3 April 2012)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a second round runoff on 25 March 2012; prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Macky SALL elected president; percent of votes in a runoff - Macky SALL 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE 34.2%
Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consisting of the Senate, reinstituted in 2007, (100 seats; 35 members indirectly elected and 65 members appointed by the president) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote and 60 elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 19 August 2007 (next to be held - NA); National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
election results:
Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDS 34, AJ/PADS 1, 65 appointed by the president; National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Giss Giss coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRDS 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
Judicial branch
Constitutional Council; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders
African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]; Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion [Macky SALL]; Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties); Bokk Giss Giss coalition [Pape DIOP]; Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Ahmadou Kara MBACKE]; People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRDS; Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Synergy for Ethics and Transparency [Aminata TALL]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leaders
other:
labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Cheikh NIANG
chancery:
2031 Florida Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
[1] (202) 234-0540
FAX:
[1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general:
Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lewis LUKENS
embassy:
Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address:
B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone:
[221] 33-829-2100
FAX:
[221] 33-822-2991
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
National symbol(s)
lion
National anthem
name:
"Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music:
Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
adopted 1960; the lyrics were written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem is sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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