Geographic and Governmental Profile of Romania

Background
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
238,391 sq km
rank:
83
land:
229,891 sq km
water:
8,500 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries
total:
2,508 km
border countries:
Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Coastline
225 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Black Sea 0 m
highest point:
Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use
arable land:
39.49%
permanent crops:
1.92%
other:
58.59% (2005)
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Irrigated land
31,570 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
42.3 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
6.5 cu km/yr (9%/34%/57%)
per capita:
299 cu m/yr (2003)
Natural hazards
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
Country name
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Romania
local long form:
none
local short form:
Romania
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Bucharest
geographic coordinates:
44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference:
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitution
8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
note: President BASESCU has had two suspensions to his presidency since assuming the post on 20 December 2004, the first from 20 April-23 May 2007, the second from 10 July-27 August 2012; he survived a referendum on both occasions
head of government:
Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Florin GEORGESCU (since 7 May 2012)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
election results:
Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%
Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (334 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 30 November 2008 (next by November 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 30 November 2008 (next by November 2012)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 34.2%, PDL 33.6%, PNL 18.7%, UDMR 6.4%, other 7.1%; seats by alliance/party - PSD-PC 49, PDL 51, PNL 28, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 33.1%, PDL 32.4%, PNL 18.6%, UDMR 6.2%, ethnic minorities 3.6%, other 6.1%; seats by alliance/party - PDL 115, PSD-PC 114, PNL 65, UDMR 22, ethnic minorities 18
Judicial branch
Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
Political parties and leaders
Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]; National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
Political pressure groups and leaders
other:
various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA
chancery:
1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX:
[1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mark GITENSTEIN
embassy:
Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address:
pouch: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone:
[40] (21) 200-3300
FAX:
[40] (21) 200-3442
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
National symbol(s)
golden eagle
National anthem
name:
"Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music:
Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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