Geographic and Governmental Profile of Serbia

Background
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions were ultimately unsuccessful and led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status.
Location
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
77,474 sq km
rank:
117
land:
77,474 sq km
water:
0 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries
total:
2,026 km
border countries:
Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terrain
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point:
Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resources
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land use
arable land:
NA
permanent crops:
NA
other:
NA
Get Chart Code
Get Chart Code
Irrigated land
890 sq km
Total renewable water resources
208.5 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2003)
Natural hazards
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Serbia
conventional short form:
Serbia
local long form:
Republika Srbija
local short form:
Srbija
former:
People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates:
44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
167 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina)
Serbia Proper:
Belgrade City (Beograd): Barajevo, Cukarica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladenovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zvezdara; Bor: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevo: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Grad Nis: Crveni Krst, Mediana, Niska Banja, Palilula, Pantelej; Jablanica: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medveda, Vlasotince; Kolubara: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macva: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravica: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisava: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinja: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirot: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavlje: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravlje: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rekovac, Svilajnac; Rasina: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raska: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadija: Arandelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplica: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitorada; Zajecar: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zajecar; Zlatibor: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice
Vojvodina Autonomous Province:
South Backa: Bac, Backa Palanka, Backi Petrovac, Becej, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Srobobran, Temerin, Titel, Vrbas, Zabalj; South Banat: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; North Backa: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; North Banat: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Central Banat: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Srem: Indija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; West Backa: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor
Independence
5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday
National Day, 15 February
Constitution
adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 31 May 2012)
head of government:
Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 23 July 2012)
cabinet:
Republican Ministries act as cabinet
elections:
president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results:
Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president in runoff election; NIKOLIC 51.2% of the vote, Boris TADIC 48.8% of the vote
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected according to party lists to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2016)
election results:
percent of vote by party - Let's Get Serbia Moving 24.04%, Choice for a Better Life 22.11%, SPS/PUPS/US 14.53%, DS 7.00%, Turnover 6.52%, United Regions of Serbia 5.49%, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 1.77%, other 18.54%; seats by party - Let's Get Serbia Moving 73, Choice for a Better Life 67, SPS/PUPS/US 44, DS 21, Turnover 19, United Regions of Serbia 16, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 5, other 5
current composition - For European Serbia coalition 78, SRS 57, United Region of Serbia 24, Forward Serbia 21, DS 20, SPS-JS 15, LDP 12, NS 9, PUPS 5, others 9
Judicial branch
courts of general jurisdiction (municipal courts, district courts, Appellate Courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation); courts of special jurisdiction (commercial courts, the High Commercial Court, the High Magistrates Court, the Administrative Court)
Political parties and leaders
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]; Bosniak Democratic Union or BDU [Elmir ELFIC]; Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina or DSHV [Petar KUNTIC]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; The Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]; Christian Democratic Party of Serbia or DHSS [Olgica BATIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Serbian Progressive Party [Aleksandar VUCIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Albanian Coalition of Presevo Valley [Riza HALIMI]; Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; United Regions of Serbia [Mladan DINKIC]; United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]; None of the Offered Options or NOPO [Nikola TULIMIROVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]; Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Rich Serbia [Zaharije TRNAVCEVIC]; People's Party [Maja GOJKOVIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization); 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement); Dveri (Movement for the Life of Serbia)
International organization participation
BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Vladimir PETROVIC
chancery:
2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 332-0333
FAX:
[1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary WARLICK
embassy:
Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address:
5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone:
[381] (11) 361-9344
FAX:
[381] (11) 361-8230
Flag description
three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; a white Cyrillic "C" in each quarter stands for the phrase "Only Unity Saves the Serbs"; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National symbol(s)
double-headed eagle
National anthem
name:
"Boze pravde" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music:
Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
adopted 1904; the song was originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

Comments are closed.