Geographic and Governmental Profile of Nigeria

Background
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
Location
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
923,768 sq km
rank:
32
land:
910,768 sq km
water:
13,000 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
total:
4,047 km
border countries:
Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline
853 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use
arable land:
33.02%
permanent crops:
3.14%
other:
63.84% (2005)
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Irrigated land
2,930 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
286.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
8.01 cu km/yr (21%/10%/69%)
per capita:
61 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Country name
conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form:
Nigeria
Government type
federal republic
Capital
name:
Abuja
geographic coordinates:
9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence
1 October 1960 (from the UK)
National holiday
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution
adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Legal system
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; JONATHAN assumed the presidency on 5 May 2010 following the death of President YAR'ADUA; JONATHAN was declared Acting President on 9 February 2010 by the National Assembly during the extended illness of the former president
head of government:
President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010)
cabinet:
Federal Executive Council
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
election results:
Goodluck JONATHAN elected president; percent of vote - Goodluck JONATHAN 58.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI 32.0%, Nuhu RIBADU 5.4%, Ibrahim SHEKARAU 2.4%, other 1.3%
Legislative branch
bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in 2015); House of Representatives - last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in 2015)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDP 73, ACN 17, ANPP 7, CPC 6, LP 4, other 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDP 205, ACN 69, CPC 36, ANPP 28, LP 9, APGA 6, ACC 5, other 2; note - due to logistical problems elections in a number of constituencies were held on 26 April 2011
Judicial branch
Supreme Court (judges recommended by the National Judicial Council and appointed by the president); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government from a pool of judges recommended by the National Judicial Council)
Political parties and leaders
Accord Party [Augustine MAZIE, acting]; Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Bisi AKANDE]; All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya ONU]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; Conference of Nigerian Political Parities or CNPP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Congress for Progressive Change or CPC; Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Labor Party [Dan NWANYANWU]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Dr. Okwesilieze NWODO]; Peoples Progressive Alliance [Larry ESIN]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU; Campaign for Democracy or CD; Civil Liberties Organization or CLO; Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR; Constitutional Right Project or CRP; Human Right Africa; National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL; National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS; Nigerian Bar Association or NBA; Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC; Nigerian Medical Association or NMA; the press; Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Adebowale Ibidapo ADEFUYE
chancery:
3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 986-8400
FAX:
[1] (202) 775-1385
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Terence P. MCCULLEY
embassy:
1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address:
P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone:
[234] (9) 461-4000
FAX:
[234] (9) 461-4036
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
National symbol(s)
eagle
National anthem
name:
"Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
lyrics/music:
John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
adopted 1978; the lyrics are a mixture of five of the top entries in a national contest
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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