Geographic and Governmental Profile of Mozambique

Background
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.
Location
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
799,380 sq km
rank:
35
land:
786,380 sq km
water:
13,000 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
total:
4,571 km
border countries:
Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline
2,470 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Climate
tropical to subtropical
Terrain
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use
arable land:
5.43%
permanent crops:
0.29%
other:
94.28% (2005)
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Irrigated land
1,180 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
216 cu km (1992)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)
per capita:
32 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues
a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form:
Mozambique
local long form:
Republica de Mocambique
local short form:
Mocambique
former:
Portuguese East Africa
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Maputo
geographic coordinates:
25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference:
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution
30 November 1990
Legal system
mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, Islamic law, and customary law
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government:
Prime Minister Aires Bonifacio Baptista ALI (since 16 January 2010)
cabinet:
Cabinet
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%
Legislative branch
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results:
percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8
Judicial branch
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president, and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, Constitutional Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
Political parties and leaders
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]; Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Amelia Matos SUMBANA
chancery:
1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
[1] (202) 293-7146
FAX:
[1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Leslie V. ROWE
embassy:
Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address:
P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone:
[258] (21) 492797
FAX:
[258] (21) 490114
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
National anthem
name:
"Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music:
Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
adopted 2002
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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