Geographic and Governmental Profile of Mali

Background
A military coup overthrew the government in March 2012, claiming that the government had not adequately supported the Malian army's fight against an advancing Tuareg-led rebellion in the north. Heavy international pressure forced coup leaders to accelerate the transition back to democratic rule and, to that end, Dioncounda TRAORE was installed as interim president on 12 April 2012.
Location
interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Geographic coordinates
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
1,240,192 sq km
rank:
24
land:
1,220,190 sq km
water:
20,002 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total:
7,243 km
border countries:
Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Senegal River 23 m
highest point:
Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use
arable land:
3.76%
permanent crops:
0.03%
other:
96.21% (2005)
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Irrigated land
2,360 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
100 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
per capita:
484 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Mali
conventional short form:
Mali
local long form:
Republique de Mali
local short form:
Mali
former:
French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Bamako
geographic coordinates:
12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference:
UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)
Independence
22 September 1960 (from France)
Constitution
adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system
civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
[Interim] President Dioncounda TRAORE (since 12 April 2012)
in the aftermath of the March 2012 coup, deposed President TOURE, in a brokered deal, resigned to facilitate the naming of an interim president and transition back toward democratic rule
head of government:
[Interim] Prime Minister Cheick Modibo DIARRA (since 17 April 2012)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held on 29 April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
election results:
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leaders
other:
the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU (suspended), CD, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Al Maamoun Baba Lamine KEITA
chancery:
2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX:
[1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD
embassy:
located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address:
ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone:
[223] 270-2300
FAX:
[223] 270-2479
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
National anthem
name:
"Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music:
Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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