Geographic and Governmental Profile of Macedonia

Background
Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the United States and 133 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's ethnic Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Fully implementing the Framework Agreement, maintaining momentum on democratic reforms, and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made over the past several years.
Location
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
25,713 sq km
rank:
150
land:
25,433 sq km
water:
280 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries
total:
766 km
border countries:
Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Vardar River 50 m
highest point:
Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use
arable land:
22.01%
permanent crops:
1.79%
other:
76.2% (2005)
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Irrigated land
1,280 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
6.4 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
2.27
per capita:
1,118 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form:
Macedonia
local long form:
Republika Makedonija
local short form:
Makedonija
the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)
former:
People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government type
parliamentary democracy
Capital
name:
Skopje
geographic coordinates:
42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
84 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Gjorce Petrov) (Skopje), Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
the 10 municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality
Independence
8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday
Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
Constitution
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001, 2005, and in 2009
amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights, in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary, and in 2009 with amendments related to the threshold required to elect the president
Legal system
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
head of government:
Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, BDI/DUI, and several small parties
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election: first round held on 22 March 2009, second round held on 5 April 2009 (next to be held in March 2014); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister
election results:
Gjorge IVANOV elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV 63.1%, Ljubomir FRCKOSKI 36.9%
Legislative branch
unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; all members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral and three diaspora districts; members serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held by June 2015)
election results:
percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 39%, SDSM-led block 32.8%, BDI/DUI 10.2%, PDSh/DPA 5.9%, other 12.1%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 56, SDSM-led block 42, BDI/DUI 15, PDSh/DPA 8, other 2
Judicial branch
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; Judicial Council
the Judicial Council appoints the judges; Legislative Assembly appoints Constitutional Court Judges
Political parties and leaders
Democratic League of Bosniaks in Macedonia, [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia DPSM [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of the Albanians DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Turks of Macedonia DPTM [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia, DOM [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union or DS [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Union for Integration, DUI, [ALI AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Liberal Party LP [IVON VELICKOVSKI]; Movement for National Unity of Turks in Macedonia, [Erdogan SARAC]; National Democratic Revival RDK [Rufi OSMANI]; New Social-Democratic Party NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Action of Macedonia SDA [Avdija PEPIC]; Party for the Total Emancipation of Roma PCER [Samka IBRAIMOVSKI]; Party on European Future PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Serbian Progressive party in Macedonia, SPSM [Dragisha MILETIC]; Social-Democratic Union of Macedonia, SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]; Socialist Party of Macedonia, SP [Ljubisav IVNAOV DZINGO]; Union of Roma of Macedonia SR [Amdi BAJRAM]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Federation of Free Trade Unions [Rasko MISHKOSKI]; Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI]; Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Yakim NEDELKOV]
International organization participation
BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI
chancery:
2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 667-0501
FAX:
[1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general:
Southfield (Michigan), Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Paul D. WOHLERS
embassy:
Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
mailing address:
American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone:
[389] (2) 310-2000
FAX:
[389] (2) 310-2499
Flag description
a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
National symbol(s)
eight-rayed sun
National anthem
name:
"Denes Nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)
lyrics/music:
Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI
adopted 1991; the song, written in 1943, previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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