Geographic and Governmental Profile of Montenegro

Background
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Location
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
13,812 sq km
rank:
162
land:
13,452 sq km
water:
360 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries
total:
625 km
border countries:
Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km
Coastline
293.5 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
continental shelf:
defined by treaty
Climate
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point:
Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use
arable land:
13.7%
permanent crops:
1%
other:
85.3%
Get Chart Code
Get Chart Code
Irrigated land
22 sq km
Natural hazards
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Country name
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Montenegro
local long form:
none
local short form:
Crna Gora
former:
People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Podgorica; note - the Old Royal Capital is Cetinje mentioned in the constitution
geographic coordinates:
42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence
3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday
National Day, 13 July (1878)
Constitution
approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)
Legal system
civil law
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government:
Prime Minister Igor LUKSIC (since 29 December 2010)
cabinet:
Ministries act as cabinet
elections:
president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results:
Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.9%, Andrija MANDIC 19.6%, Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.6%, Srdan MILIC 11.9%
Legislative branch
unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results:
percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 51.94%, SNP 16.83%, NOVA 9.22%, PZP 6.03%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 15.98%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 48, SNP 16, NOVA 8, PZP 5, Albanian minority parties 4
Judicial branch
Constitutional Court (five judges serve nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Political parties and leaders
Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], Bosniak Party of BS [Rafet HUSOVIC], and Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]); Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC]; Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARDHIJ]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]; FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]; Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]; Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
International organization participation
CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC
chancery:
1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone:
[1] (202) 234-6108
FAX:
[1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general:
New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Sue K BROWN
embassy:
Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[382] 20 410 500
FAX:
[382] 20 241 358
Flag description
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
National symbol(s)
double-headed eagle
National anthem
name:
"Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music:
Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

Comments are closed.