Geographic and Governmental Profile of Mongolia

Background
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.
Location
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Asia
Area
total:
1,564,116 sq km
rank:
19
land:
1,553,556 sq km
water:
10,560 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries
total:
8,220 km
border countries:
China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point:
Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use
arable land:
0.76%
permanent crops:
0%
other:
99.24% (2005)
Get Chart Code
Get Chart Code
Irrigated land
840 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
34.8 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.44 cu km/yr (20%/27%/52%)
per capita:
166 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues
limited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Country name
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Mongolia
local long form:
none
local short form:
Mongol Uls
former:
Outer Mongolia
Government type
parliamentary
Capital
name:
Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates:
47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference:
UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence
11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution
13 January 1992
Legal system
civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ (since 18 June 2009)
head of government:
Prime Minister Norov ALTANKHUYAG (since 9 August 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Dendev TERBISHDAGVA (since 20 August 2012)
cabinet:
Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections:
presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 May 2009 (next to be held by May 2013); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
election results:
in elections in May 2009, Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ elected president; percent of vote - Tsakhia ELBEGDORJ 51.2%, Nambar ENKHBAYAR 47.4%, others 1.3%
Legislative branch
unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; of which 48 members are directly elected from 26 electoral districts, while 28 members are proportionally elected based on a party's share of the total votes; all serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 28 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)
election results:
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP 31, MPP 25, Justice Coalition 11, others 5, vacant 4
Judicial branch
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president); Constitutional Court (this independent court resolves disputes about potentially unconstitutional laws and acts of the president, members of parliament, and the cabinet)
Political parties and leaders
Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Dangaasuren EHKHBAT]; Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]; Mongolian People's Party or MPP [O. ENKHTUVSHIN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
Political pressure groups and leaders
other:
human rights groups; women's groups
International organization participation
ADB, ARF, CD, CICA, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Khasbazar BEKHBAT
chancery:
2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
[1] (202) 333-7117
FAX:
[1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general:
New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Piper Anne Wind CAMPBELL
embassy:
Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar, 14171 Mongolia
mailing address:
PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13
telephone:
[976] (11) 329-095
FAX:
[976] (11) 320-776
Flag description
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol); blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity
National symbol(s)
soyombo emblem
National anthem
name:
"Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music:
Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ
music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; the anthem's lyrics have been altered on numerous occasions
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

Comments are closed.