Geographic and Governmental Profile of Luxembourg

Background
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Location
Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates
49 45 N, 6 10 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
2,586 sq km
rank:
179
land:
2,586 sq km
water:
0 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries
total:
359 km
border countries:
Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Moselle River 133 m
highest point:
Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use
arable land:
27.42%
permanent crops:
0.69%
other:
71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)
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Irrigated land
NA
Total renewable water resources
1.6 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita:
121 cu m/yr (1999)
Natural hazards
NA
Environment - current issues
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification
Geography - note
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
Country name
conventional long form:
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form:
Luxembourg
local long form:
Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form:
Luxembourg
Government type
constitutional monarchy
Capital
name:
Luxembourg
geographic coordinates:
49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence
1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
Constitution
17 October 1868; occasional revisions
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch
chief of state:
Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government:
Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections:
the monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
government coalition - CSV and LSAP
Legislative branch
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held by June 2014)
election results:
percent of vote by party - CSV 38%, LSAP 21.6%, DP 15%, Green Party 11.7%, ADR 8.1%, The Left 3.3%, other 2.3%; seats by party - CSV 26, LSAP 13, DP 9, Green Party 7, ADR 4, The Left 1
there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Judicial branch
Constitutional Court; judicial courts and tribunals (Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation, 2 district tribunals, 3 lesser tribunals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, Administrative Tribunal and Administrative Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Gast GIBERYEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Lucien LUX]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation
ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jean-Paul SENNINGER
chancery:
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX:
[1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general:
New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert MANDELL
embassy:
22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address:
American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone:
[352] 46-01-23
FAX:
[352] 46-14-01
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
National symbol(s)
lion
National anthem
name:
"Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
lyrics/music:
Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
"Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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