Geographic and Governmental Profile of Kyrgyzstan

Background
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won re-election in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, nationwide protests led to the resignation and expulsion of BAKIEV. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.
Location
Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates
41 00 N, 75 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Asia
Area
total:
199,951 sq km
rank:
87
land:
191,801 sq km
water:
8,150 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries
total:
3,051 km
border countries:
China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,224 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrain
peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point:
Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resources
abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use
arable land:
6.55%
permanent crops:
0.28%
other:
93.17%
Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural-growth walnut forest (2005)
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Irrigated land
10,196 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
46.5 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
10.08 cu km/yr (3%/3%/94%)
per capita:
1,916 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
NA
Environment - current issues
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
Country name
conventional long form:
Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form:
Kyrgyzstan
local long form:
Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form:
Kyrgyzstan
former:
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Bishkek
geographic coordinates:
42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference:
UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence
31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Constitution
27 June 2010
Legal system
civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
head of government:
Prime Minister Jantoro SATYBALDIEV (since 5 September 2012); First Deputy Prime Minister - Joomart OTORBAEV (since 5 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers - Tayyrbek SARPASHEV and Kamila TALIEVA (since 5 September 2012)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense and security are appointed solely by the president
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next scheduled for 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government
election results:
Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV 14.3%, other 7.8%; Jantoro SATYBALDIEV elected prime minister; parliamentary vote - 111-2
Legislative branch
unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 10 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results:
Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ata-Jurt 28, SDPK 26, Ar-Namys 25, Respublika 23, Ata-Meken 18
Judicial branch
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (judges of both the Supreme and Constitutional Courts are appointed for 10-year terms by the Jogorku Kengesh on the recommendation of the president; their mandatory retirement age is 70 years); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs for a probationary period of five years, then 10 years)
Political parties and leaders
Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV]; Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]; Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV, Miroslav NIYAZOV]; Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV]; Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Adilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAEVA]
International organization participation
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mukhtar JUMALIEV
chancery:
2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 449-9822
FAX:
[1] (202) 386-7550
consulate(s):
New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Pamela SPRATLEN
embassy:
171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
[996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX:
[996] (312) 551-264
Flag description
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
National symbol(s)
gyrfalcon
National anthem
name:
"Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music:
Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
adopted 1992
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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