Geographic and Governmental Profile of Hungary

Background
Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later. In 2011, Hungary assumed the six-month rotating presidency of the EU for the first time.
Location
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
93,028 sq km
rank:
110
land:
89,608 sq km
water:
3,420 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries
total:
2,185 km
border countries:
Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 166 km, Slovakia 676 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Tisza River 78 m
highest point:
Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use
arable land:
49.58%
permanent crops:
2.06%
other:
48.36% (2005)
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Irrigated land
1,400 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
120 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
21.03 cu km/yr (9%/59%/32%)
per capita:
2,082 cu m/yr (2001)
Environment - current issues
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Country name
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Hungary
local long form:
none
local short form:
Magyarorszag
Government type
parliamentary democracy
Capital
name:
Budapest
geographic coordinates:
47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties:
Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties:
Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city:
Budapest
Independence
16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
National holiday
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August; note - commemorates the date when his remains were transferred to Buda (now Budapest)
Constitution
25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
Legal system
civil legal system influenced by the German model
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government:
Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
elections:
president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 May 2010
election results:
Janos ADER elected president; National Assembly vote - 262 to 40; Viktor ORBAN elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 261 to 107
to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first round or a simple majority in the second round
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 11 and 25 April 2010 (next to be held in April 2014)
election results:
percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - Fidesz 52.7%, MSzP 19.3%, Jobbik 16.7%, LMP 7.5%; seats by party - Fidesz 263, MSzP 59, Jobbik 47, LMP 16, independent 1
current composition - seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 263, MSzP 48, Jobbik 46, LMP 15, Democratic Coalition 10, independent 4
Judicial branch
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms); Curia (highest court; head of Curia elected by National Assembly, the other judges elected by the president on recommendation of the head of the National Office of the Courts, a separate administrative body); Regional Courts of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders
Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Democratic Coalition [Ferenc GYURCSANY]; Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Attila MESTERHAZY]; Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]; Politics Can Be Different or LMP [13-member leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Air Work Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns and cities); Danube Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam); Fourth Republic (Negyedik Koztarsasag) or 4K! (anti-Orban, pro-democracy Facebook movement emerged from a Facebook group, One Million for Freedom of the Press, and plans to form a leftist political party); Green Future (protests the impact of lead contamination of local factory on health of the people); Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy); Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system); environmentalists: Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet) or MME; Green Alternative (Zold Alternativa)
International organization participation
Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gyorgy SZAPARY
chancery:
3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 362-6730
FAX:
[1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Eleni Tsakopoulos KOUNALAKIS
embassy:
Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address:
pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone:
[36] (1) 475-4400
FAX:
[36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
National symbol(s)
Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); turul (falcon)
National anthem
name:
"Himnusz" (Hymn)
lyrics/music:
Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
adopted 1844
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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