Geographic and Governmental Profile of Croatia

Background
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. In April 2009, Croatia joined NATO; Croatia signed the EU Accession Treaty in December 2011 and ratified the Treaty in January, 2012. Croatia will become a member after all 27 EU members ratify the treaty, with a target date of July 2013.
Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Europe
Area
total:
56,594 sq km
rank:
127
land:
55,974 sq km
water:
620 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries
total:
1,982 km
border countries:
Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km
Coastline
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point:
Dinara 1,831 m
Natural resources
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use
arable land:
25.82%
permanent crops:
2.19%
other:
71.99% (2005)
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Irrigated land
310 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
105.5 cu km (1998)
Natural hazards
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Croatia
conventional short form:
Croatia
local long form:
Republika Hrvatska
local short form:
Hrvatska
former:
People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Government type
presidential/parliamentary democracy
Capital
name:
Zagreb
geographic coordinates:
45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska, Brodsko-Posavska, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka, Krapinsko-Zagorska, Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska, Osjecko-Baranjska, Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska, Sibensko-Kninska, Sisacko-Moslavacka, Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska, Viroviticko-Podravska, Vukovarsko-Srijemska, Zadarska, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka
Independence
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday
Independence Day, 8 October (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
Constitution
adopted 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001
Legal system
civil law system based on Yugoslav civil codes; note - Croatia has enacted many reforms to its legal system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Ivo JOSIPOVIC (since 18 February 2010)
head of government:
Prime Minister Zoran MILANOVIC (since 23 December 2011); First Deputy Prime Minister Radimir CACIC (since 23 December 2011)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary assembly
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the assembly
election results:
Ivo JOSIPOVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Ivo JOSIPOVIC 60%, Milan BANDIC 40%
Legislative branch
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (151 seats; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in late 2015)
election results:
percent of vote by party - Kukuriku 40%, HDZ 23.5%, Laborists-Labor 5.1%, HSS 3%, HDSSB 2.9%, Independent list of Ivan Grubisic 2.8%, HCSP-HSP 2.8%, other 19.9%; number of seats by party - Kukuriku 80, HDZ 47, Laborists-Labor 6, HDSSB 6, Independent list of Ivan Grubisic 2, HSS 1, HCSP-HSP 1, other 8
Judicial branch
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts are appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
Political parties and leaders
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Vladimir SISLJAGIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Jadranka KOSOR]; Croatian Laborists-Labor Party [Dragutin LESAR]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Daniel SRB]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]; Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Radimir CACIC]; Croatian Pure Party of Rights-Ante Starcevic or HSP-AS [Ruza TOMASIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Kukuriku Coalition (consists of SDP, HNS, IDS, and HSU) [Zoran MILANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders
other:
human rights groups
International organization participation
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (acceding country), FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Josko PARO
chancery:
2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 588-5899
FAX:
[1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador James B. FOLEY
embassy:
2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address:
use street address
telephone:
[385] (1) 661-2200
FAX:
[385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions, they are (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National symbol(s)
red-white checkerboard
National anthem
name:
"Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
lyrics/music:
Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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