Geographic and Governmental Profile of Honduras

Background
Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.
Location
Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Geographic coordinates
15 00 N, 86 30 W
Continent / Subcontinent
Central America and the Caribbean
Area
total:
112,090 sq km
rank:
103
land:
111,890 sq km
water:
200 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries
total:
1,520 km
border countries:
Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Coastline
Caribbean Sea 669 km; Gulf of Fonseca 163 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
continental shelf:
natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
Climate
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain
mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point:
Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m
Natural resources
timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Land use
arable land:
9.53%
permanent crops:
3.21%
other:
87.26% (2005)
Get Chart Code
Get Chart Code
Irrigated land
800 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
95.9 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.86 cu km/yr (8%/12%/80%)
per capita:
119 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Environment - current issues
urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Honduras
conventional short form:
Honduras
local long form:
Republica de Honduras
local short form:
Honduras
Government type
democratic constitutional republic
Capital
name:
Tegucigalpa
geographic coordinates:
14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference:
UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:
none scheduled for 2012
Administrative divisions
18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution
11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Porfirio LOBO Sosa (since 27 January 2010); Vice President Maria Antonieta GUILLEN de Bogran (since 27 January 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government:
President Porfirio LOBO Sosa (since 27 January 2010); Vice President Maria Antonieta GUILLEN de Bogran (since 27 January 2010)
cabinet:
Cabinet appointed by president
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)
election results:
Porfirio "Pepe" LOBO Sosa elected president; percent of vote - Porfirio "Pepe" LOBO Sosa 56.3%, Elvin SANTOS Lozano 38.1%, other 5.6%
Legislative branch
unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members elected proportionally by department to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)
election results:
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNH 71, PL 45, PDC 5, PUD 4, PINU 3
Judicial branch
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 judges are elected for seven-year terms by the National Congress)
Political parties and leaders
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Cesar HAM]; Liberal Party or PL [Roberto MICHELETTI Bain]; National Party or PN [Antonio ALVAREZ Arias]; Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS; Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH; United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan (MUCA)
International organization participation
BCIE, CACM, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (suspended), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ Alcerro
chancery:
Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 966-2604
FAX:
[1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Francisco
honorary consulate(s):
Jacksonville
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lisa J. KUBISKE
embassy:
Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address:
American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone:
[504] 236-9320, 238-5114
FAX:
[504] 238-4357
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue, with five blue, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water and the peace and prosperity of its people
similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band
National symbol(s)
scarlet macaw; white-tailed deer
National anthem
name:
"Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music:
Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING
adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

Comments are closed.