Geographic and Governmental Profile of Ethiopia

Background
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission(EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.
Location
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates
8 00 N, 38 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
1,104,300 sq km
rank:
27
land:
1 million sq km
water:
104,300 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total:
5,328 km
border countries:
Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, South Sudan 837 km, Sudan 769 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point:
Ras Dejen 4,533 m
Natural resources
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land use
arable land:
10.01%
permanent crops:
0.65%
other:
89.34% (2005)
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Irrigated land
2,900 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
110 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
5.56 cu km/yr (6%/0%/94%)
per capita:
72 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism:
volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, causing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
Environment - current issues
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Geography - note
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
Country name
conventional long form:
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form:
Ethiopia
local long form:
Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form:
Ityop'iya
former:
Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation:
FDRE
Government type
federal republic
Capital
name:
Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates:
9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference:
UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
Constitution
ratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995
Legal system
civil law system
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)
head of government:
[Acting] Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 August 2012); note - Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM assumed office due to the death of former Prime Minister MELES
cabinet:
Council of Ministers ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections:
president elected by both chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
election results:
GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%
Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
elections:
last held on 23 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results:
percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 499, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, HNL 1, FORUM 1, APDO 1, independent 1
Judicial branch
Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Political parties and leaders
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]; All Ethiopian Unity Organization or AEUO [Hailu SHAWEL]; Arena Tigray [GEBRU Asrat]; Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO [Abdulkader MOHAMMED]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamiso]; Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP [MUSHE Semu]; Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) [Dr. Moga FRISSA]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi]; Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM; Gurage Peoples Democratic Front [GIRMA Bogale]; Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein]; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM; Oromo People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF [BUH Hussien]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP [Abdulfetah Sheck ABDULAHI]; South Ethiopian People's Democratic Union or SEPDU [TILAHUN Endeshaw]; United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Dr. NEGASSO Gidada]
Political pressure groups and leaders
Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador GIRMA Birru
chancery:
3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 364-1200
FAX:
[1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles
consulate(s):
New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald E. BOOTH
embassy:
Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone:
[251] 11-517-40-00
FAX:
[251] 11-517-40-01
Flag description
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
National symbol(s)
Abyssinian lion
National anthem
name:
"Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music:
DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
adopted 1992
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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