Geographic and Governmental Profile of Congo (Brazzaville)

Background
Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The Republic of Congo was once one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.
Location
Central Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Geographic coordinates
1 00 S, 15 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
342,000 sq km
rank:
64
land:
341,500 sq km
water:
500 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries
total:
5,504 km
border countries:
Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
Coastline
169 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
200 nm
Climate
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Terrain
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Mount Berongou 903 m
Natural resources
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
Land use
arable land:
1.45%
permanent crops:
0.15%
other:
98.4% (2005)
Get Chart Code
Get Chart Code
Irrigated land
20 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
832 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.03 cu km/yr (59%/29%/12%)
per capita:
8 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
seasonal flooding
Environment - current issues
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of the Congo
conventional short form:
Congo (Brazzaville)
local long form:
Republique du Congo
local short form:
none
former:
Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
Brazzaville
geographic coordinates:
4 15 S, 15 17 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha
Independence
15 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution
approved by referendum 20 January 2002
Legal system
mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government:
President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997); note - the position of prime minister was abolished in September 2009
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 July 2009 (next to be held in 2016)
election results:
Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso 78.6%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 7.5%, Nicephore Fylla de SAINT-EUDES 7%, other 6.9%
Legislative branch
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (72 seats; members elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (139 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:
Senate - last held on 5 August 2008 (next to be held in July 2013); National Assembly - last held on 15 July and 5 August 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RMP 33, FDU 23, UPADS 2, independents 7, other 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT (and allies) 117, UPADS 7, independents 12, vacant 3
Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders
Action Movement for Renewal or MAR; Congolese Labour Party or PCT; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR; United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]; many smaller parties
Political pressure groups and leaders
Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI
chancery:
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
[1] (202) 726-5500
FAX:
[1] (202) 726-1860
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Christopher W. MURRAY
embassy:
70-83 Section D, Maya-Maya Boulevard, Brazzaville;
mailing address:
B.P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone:
[242] 612-6000
Flag description
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; green symbolizes agriculture and forests, yellow the friendship and nobility of the people, red is unexplained but has been associated with the struggle for independence
uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National symbol(s)
lion; elephant
National anthem
name:
"La Congolaise" (The Congolese)
lyrics/music:
Jacques TONDRA and Georges KIBANGHI/Jean ROYER and Joseph SPADILIERE
originally adopted 1959, restored 1991
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

Comments are closed.