Geographic and Governmental Profile of Chad

Background
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.
Location
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
1.284 million sq km
rank:
21
land:
1,259,200 sq km
water:
24,800 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries
total:
5,968 km
border countries:
Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
none (landlocked)
Climate
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Djourab 160 m
highest point:
Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use
arable land:
2.8%
permanent crops:
0.02%
other:
97.18% (2005)
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Irrigated land
300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
43 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.23 cu km/yr (17%/0%/83%)
per capita:
24 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issues
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Chad
conventional short form:
Chad
local long form:
Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form:
Tchad/Tshad
Government type
republic
Capital
name:
N'Djamena
geographic coordinates:
12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence
11 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution
passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Legal system
mixed legal system of civil and customary law
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government:
Prime Minister Emmanuel NADINGAR (since 5 March 2010)
cabinet:
Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections:
president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:
Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji Madou 7.8%
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:
National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results:
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
Judicial branch
Supreme Court; Constitutional Council; High Court of Justice; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders
Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP; Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders
rebel groups
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Maitine DJOUMBE
chancery:
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
[1] (202) 462-4009
FAX:
[1] (202) 265-1937
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
embassy:
Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address:
B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone:
[235] 251-62-11, 251-70-09, 251-77-59
FAX:
[235] 251-56-54
Flag description
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
National symbol(s)
goat (north); lion (south)
National anthem
name:
"La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music:
Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
adopted 1960
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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