Geographic and Governmental Profile of Angola

Background
Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again by 1996. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS held legislative elections in September 2008 and, despite promising to hold presidential elections in 2009, has since pushed through a new constitution that calls for elections in 2012.
Location
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Continent / Subcontinent
Africa
Area
total:
1,246,700 sq km
rank:
23
land:
1,246,700 sq km
water:
0 sq km
Area - comparative
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
total:
5,198 km
border countries:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Coastline
1,600 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea:
12 nm
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Climate
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes
lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Natural resources
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use
arable land:
2.65%
permanent crops:
0.23%
other:
97.12% (2005)
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Irrigated land
800 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
184 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total:
0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)
per capita:
22 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements
party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Country name
conventional long form:
Republic of Angola
conventional short form:
Angola
local long form:
Republica de Angola
local short form:
Angola
former:
People's Republic of Angola
Government type
republic; multiparty presidential regime
Capital
name:
Luanda
geographic coordinates:
8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference:
UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution
adopted by National Assembly 5 February 2010
Legal system
civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch
chief of state:
President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Fernando "Nando" da Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS (since 2 February 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government:
President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Fernando "Nando" da Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS (since 2 February 2010)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections:
president indirectly elected by National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 2010 constitution; President DOS SANTOS was selected by the party to take over after the death of former President Augustino NETO (1979) under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections on 29-30 September 1992 (next were to be held in September 2009 but were postponed)
election results:
Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was never held leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president
Legislative branch
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:
last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
election results:
percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.8%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2
Judicial branch
Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional; Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo; Court of Auditions or Tribunal de Contas; Supreme Military Court or Supremo Tribunal Militar; judges for all courts appointed by the president
Political parties and leaders
Broad Convergence for Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Ngola KABANGU]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party); New Democracy Electoral Union or ND [Quintino de MOREIRA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975); Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
nine other parties participated in the legislative election in September 2008 but won no seats
Political pressure groups and leaders
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006
International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Alberto do Carmo BENTO RIBEIRO
chancery:
2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
[1] (202) 785-1156
FAX:
[1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general:
Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission:
Ambassador Christopher J. MCMULLEN
embassy:
number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address:
international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone:
[244] (222) 64-1000
FAX:
[244] (222) 64-1232
Flag description
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National symbol(s)
sable antelope
National anthem
name:
"Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music:
Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
adopted 1975
Data source 1: All Above textual data, maps and flags were extracted from The World Factbook which was prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and made available on the following link: The World Factbook. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsered or affiliated, in any way, by the US Central Intelligence Agency
Data source 2: Plots and Charts are constructed using the world bank public data catalog which can be viewed by visiting the following link: World Bank Data Catalog. Lebanese Economy Forum is not sponsored or affiliated, in any way, by the worldbank

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